Pollen Allergy: how to recognize, how to prevent how to fight?
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Seasonal allergic rhinitis is the most common form today of Allergy, which affects almost one in ten people in the world.
Allergy is an altered state of immune response resulting from the reaction between a foreign protein (allergen) and native protein (antibody). The antibodies responsible for allergic reactions belong to the group of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergy manifests in the skin and external mucous membranes (eyes and nose) and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
Allergies – people with elevated levels of IgE antibodies. Prone to allergies increases due to Smoking, and the passion of the mother cigarettes during pregnancy directly affects the fetus. The incidence of allergies in the world is about 30%, of which approximately 25% are young people. An increased risk of developing allergic reactions available to children of parents with allergies: it is 40% if the Allergy is only one of the parents, and 60% if certain sensitive substances and the mother and father.
Talk about the tests that can confirm the Allergy.
In the first place Allergy skin testing for inhalant or food allergens. The treatment usually depends on the symptoms, time of their appearance (of the season) and the affected organ (skin, mucous membranes of the eyes, nose or respiratory tract). You should really consult an allergist, who will recommend the necessary procedures and prescribe the following tests:
(a) immunological study, by which is confirmed allergic to blood and is determined by the total number of IgE and the number of specific IgE-antibodies to active allergens, measurement of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein);
b) cytological examination of sputum or nasal discharge on eosinophils or measurement of the concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) to confirm an allergic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
Seasonal allergic rhinitis
Seasonal allergic rhinitis is the most common form of Allergy in the world, which affects one in ten people on our planet. This disease is characterized by symptoms such as itching and watery eyes, sneezing and watery nasal discharge or congestion. Most often it begins as an Allergy to grass pollen, which later may move in reaction to the pollen of trees and weeds. This happens in spring and summer, when there is active pollination.
Pollen and pollen grains are very light and therefore can be transported by the wind to a distance of 100 km. the greater part of the pollen, about 90%, remains on the spot of her appearance. In the larger towns and cities due to particular microclimatic conditions, the bulk of pollen grains is in the layer of air not exceeding 10 m from the ground. Under favorable weather conditions, warm and dry (30-40% moisture) weather with high air pressure is released a lot of pollen. Its highest concentration in the air is observed in the first half of the day, that is why doctors do not advise people with allergies to ventilate the room in the morning.
People suffering from pollen allergies, when leaving the house should wear a mask. It is recommended each evening to wash my hair, because during the day on the hair can accumulate pollen grains. The time of onset of symptoms helps to determine the true causes of allergies, as well as calendars dusting (made after years of observing the production of pollen from certain plants). They predict the beginning of pollination and length with a tolerance of +/- 15 days, depending on weather conditions.
Year-round perennial rhinitis
Talking about allergic irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose, which lasts throughout the year. The symptoms are the same as the seasonal or hay fever, and cause the following types of allergies.
• Allergy to animal hair
This is an allergic reaction to the dander of the skin and discharge, which are wool four-legged Pets (dogs, cats, hamsters, Guinea pigs, rabbits), as well as on products of leather and fur. Allergic people should not own Pets. If that is not possible, often to bathe your furry friend that with a cat, for example, to do pretty difficult. It is important that the animal did not go to that room, where a man sleeps with allergies, and the whole apartment needed each day thoroughly vacuumed.
• Allergy to house dust mites from
Dust mites are microscopic organisms living in your pillows, blankets, carpets, curtains, upholstered furniture. Favorable conditions for their development are temperatures of 20-30C and relative humidity of 65-80%. Therefore, they mainly appear in the autumn-winter period when the premises are rarely ventilated. Ticks can be destroyed when washed at 60C or drying at the same temperature for two hours. The apartment is Allergy ideally should not be carpets, curtains, etc.
Soft toys should from time to time to put on a night in the freezer. It is desirable to use only Hypo-allergenic bedding, and in severe cases – to sleep at all without them. For cleaning you should use a vacuum with a microfilter and acaricide (planning) disinfectants. Ticks do not happen at the altitude of 1000 m due to low humidity, so it is recommended that an annual vacation in the mountains.
• Mold Allergy
High temperature and humidity favour the development of invisible spores. They can appear on walls, in cabinets, air conditioners, gutters, bathrooms, radiators, pantries and attics. Sources of mold are dead parts of plants and food debris. People suffering from Allergy to mold, should not work in the garden and in the garden.
• Cross Allergy
There are also so-called cross-reaction between pollen allergies and certain types of fruits and vegetables. For example, Allergy to birch pollen related allergic to apples; are allergic to grass pollen – allergic to potatoes, tomatoes; Allergy to ragweed – allergic to melons, bananas, watermelon; allergic to mugwort – allergic to celery.
Treatment of allergic rhinitis
To protect the mucosa from allergens is possible through topical or local corticosteroid which is administered in the nose or dripping into the eyes. If this protection is not sufficient, apply antihistamines or anti-leukotrienes. Important to use this drug, as Cromolyn. Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis are recommended to start at least 15 days prior to enhance pollination and hold up to his end. Perennial allergic rhinitis requires the use of these treatments throughout the year.
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the Airways with a very complex interaction of a number of cells, primarily eosinophils, which are responsible for the formation of certain amounts of thick sticky secretions in the respiratory tract. Chronic inflammation caused by allergens, increases the sensitivity of the bronchial tubes, causing repeated bouts of cough, breathlessness and wheeze. From all of these unpleasant symptoms can be cured with proper therapy.
Approximately 25-50% of people with allergic rhinitis have asthma, and this means that these patients should be explored and lung function with the use of specific tests. Asthma is incurable, but with the help of drugs that must be taken regularly, patients usually disappear severe symptoms and improves quality of life. The main non-pharmacological tool in the treatment of asthma – anti-inflammatory drugs from the group of corticosteroids. In the case of weak efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy or with severe asthma and AIDS are used to facilitate breathing in the form of inhalers, short-or long-acting. It is very important that patients recognize their illness as an inevitable companion of their lives, regularly take medicines in time to detect deterioration and to prevent it by using drugs, relaxation techniques and breathing that can be learned in a special Wellness schools.
Allergy is incurable, but there are methods by which you can reduce allergic reactions by smoothing the symptoms and reduce the patient’s needs in the anti-allergic drugs.
Hyposensitization, or specific immunotherapy is the only form of therapy that can direct the immune system of a sick person on the right path. In this case, over a long period of time (on average three years) into the body at specified intervals by subcutaneous injection or as drops under the tongue is inserted to a certain concentration of allergens. The biggest advantage is that this therapy is a significant improvement or even disappearance of Allergy symptoms. The result is stored and after desensitization, which means that the patient is able for some time to take fewer drugs or at all for some period of time to give them up. This therapy can stop or at least delay the development of allergic asthma.
Conditions for desensitization
If the Allergy skin test is a proven reaction to some inhalant allergens (dust mites, grass pollen, tree pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches), you need to make immune examination (total IgE and specific IgE to individual allergens), which confirms the possibility of desensitization and the need for it. Effective desensitization to one or maximum two of the allergen, which in immunological test is the most positive and